The Buffalo Bills held the 11th overall selection in the 2009 NFL Draft. With the 11th pick, the Bills selected DE Aaron Maybin from Penn State. The Bills also selected Louisville C Eric Wood with the 28th overall pick, which they acquired from the Philadelphia Eagles. The pick originally belonged to the Carolina Panthers.

In the 2008 season, the Bills finished 7-9 in the regular season, finishing in last place in the AFC East.

The Bills have used four of their last six first-round selections on defensive players, including 2008, when they chose Troy cornerback Leodis McKelvin. Prior to 2009, the last time they made two first round selections in the same draft was 2006, when they chose Ohio State DB Donte' Whitner (8th overall) and NC State defensive tackle John McCargo (26th overall).
- The Bills acquired the 28th overall pick and the 21st pick in the 4th round (121st overall) along with a 2010 draft pick from the Philadelphia Eagles in exchange for offensive tackle Jason Peters on April 17, 2009.

- The Bills acquired the 19th pick in the 2nd round (51st overall) from the Dallas Cowboys in exchange for the 11th pick in the 3rd round (75th overall) and the 10th pick in the 4th round (110th overall) on April 25, 2009.