The St. Louis Rams held the second overall selection in the 2009 NFL draft, marking the second consecutive year they selected second overall. With the second pick, the Rams selected OT Jason Smith of Baylor.

In the 2008 season, the Rams finished 2-14 in the regular season, finishing in last place in the NFC West. 2009 marked the first draft for the Rams with new head coach Steve Spagnuolo, who was hired to replace interim head coach Jim Haslett in January.

The Rams have used three of their last four first-round selections on defensive players, including back-to-back defensive end selections in 2007 and 2008.
- The Rams acquired the 24th pick in the fifth round (160th overall), the 23rd pick in the sixth round (196th overall) and Laurent Robinson from the Atlanta Falcons in exchange for second pick in the fifth round (138th overall) and the third pick in the sixth round (176th overall) on April 6, 2009.