The Indianapolis Colts held the 27th overall selection in the 2009 NFL Draft, which they used to select Connecticut RB Donald Brown.

In the 2008 season, the Colts finished 11-5 in the regular season, finishing in second place in the AFC South. They lost to the San Diego Chargers in the AFC Wild Card Playoffs. This is their first draft under new head coach Jim Caldwell, who replaced Tony Dungy in January.

The Colts have used four of their last five first-round selections on offensive players. They did not make a first round selection in 2008.
- The Colts acquired the 24th pick in the 2nd round (56th overall) from the Miami Dolphins in exchange for the 29th pick in the 2nd round (61st overall) and the 29th pick in the 5th round (165th overall) on April 25, 2009.

- The Colts acquired the 13th pick in the 7th round (222nd overall) from the Philadelphia Eagles in exchange for a 6th-round pick in 2010 on April 26, 2009.